Arkhipov SV. Epitome of the manuscript – Biomechanics of penguins: notes to the matter of waddling gait causes and perspectives of its remodeling, with the aim of obtaining of gracefulness, composed by the physician, PhD, Sergey Vasilyevich Arkhipov, during his work as surgeon and orthopedist-traumatologist from 1992 to 2017, inspirited in 1991 by his sister, Elena Vasilyevna, with great love and gratitude to her! [in 5 volumes]. Printed by the Author in the city of Korolev, with the assistance of his wife, Liudmila Nikolayevna, ММXVIII A.D. , bonum factum! [for good and happiness]. 19 p.
[Архипов С.В. Эпитоме манускрипта - Биомеханика пингвинов: заметки к вопросу о причинах ковыляющей походки и перспективах ее ремоделирования во имя обретения грациозности, сочиненные врачом, к.м.н. Сергеем Васильевичем Архиповым, в бытность им, с 1992-го по 2017-й год, хирургом и травматологом-ортопедом, по вдохновению в 1991-ом году его сестрою Еленой Васильевной, со светлой любовью к ней и благодарностью! [в пяти томах] Напечатано Автором во граде Королев при попечении его супруги Людмилы Николаевны, ММXVIII A.D. , bonum factum! [на благо и счастье]. 19 c.]
EPITOME OF THE MANUSCRIPT – BIOMECHANICS OF PENGUINS: NOTES TO THE MATTER OF WADDLING GAIT CAUSES AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS REMODELING, WITH THE AIM OF OBTAINING OF GRACEFULNESS,…
[ЭПИТОМЕ МАНУСКРИПТА - БИОМЕХАНИКА ПИНГВИНОВ: ЗАМЕТКИ К ВОПРОСУ О ПРИЧИНАХ КОВЫЛЯЮЩЕЙ ПОХОДКИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВАХ ЕЕ РЕМОДЕЛИРОВАНИЯ ВО ИМЯ ОБРЕТЕНИЯ ГРАЦИОЗНОСТИ,…]
REVIEWING ANNOTATION OF THE MANUSCRIPT
Arkhipov Sergey Vasilyevich (pen name is S.V.Arkhipov-Baltiysky) have been working on the manuscript “Biomechanics of penguins…” for a quarter of centaury. This work was initiated, for sure with heaven inspiration, by his sister, Elena Vasilyevna, who had read in childhood the Book of Genesis to the Author, who had been at that moment practically blind. Gait disturbance as a result of damaging of some tendon, mentioned in the Holy Scriptures, had been taken by the author as a mystic secret. The searching of its answer is still on … By studying of gait of people with bilateral hip pathology was noticed that penguins have similar type of gait. The author imagined that they were facing the same difficulties as the patients suffering from coxarthrosis. Now global warming reduces the area of floating ice and undermines the existing food pyramid of the Southern Ocean. This leads to reduction in the food base of Antarctic penguins and the places of their potential rest at sea. In connection with this, it is now vital to familiarize the land and develop new effective ways of feeding on it. The main obstacle is the slow, waddling gait of penguins, accompanied by a swinging of the body, which can cause vestibular syndrome. By hunting on land, it prevents the pursuit of mobile prey and aggravates the aiming. Waddling gait does not match for long hiking, which does not allow penguins to see the sights of the continents far from the coastline. The improvement of land locomotion of penguins will guaranty them wider horizons and will increase their competitiveness in wildlife. It was found that the reason of the waddling gait is dysfunction of the ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum capitis femoris; sin.: ligamentum teres). For the remodeling of this walking stereotype, a surgical operation is proposed - circular periacetabular osteotomy of the pelvis with rotational transposition of the proximal attachment area of the ligament of femoral head. It will make the gait of penguins graceful and energy-efficient, increase stability in a single-legged period of the step and a single-bearing orthostatic posture, and will also prevent vestibulopathy in high-speed movement. This surgical intervention will be especially useful in case of complete disappearance of the ice sheet of the Earth and will help the early adaptation of Antarctic penguins to the on-land way of life. The manuscript in five tomes is set out on 2444 pages, it contains introduction, 25 chapters, conclusion, supplement and list of references, which includes 1207 sources. The book considers the most essential aspects of anatomy and biomechanics of the hip joint of birds, as well as human beings. New data are presented on the role of the femoral head ligament when walking and maintaining various types of vertical poses of penguins and humans. The work is illustrated by 1873 figures, graphs and diagrams, and also contains 62 tables. The book is intended for a wide range of readers interested in biomechanics of birds and humans.
INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST MANUSCRIPT EDITION
Penguins are good-natured creative sea birds, beloved by children and adults. Some of their species have real superpowers: they dive to a depth of half a kilometer without scuba gear and are able to live in the most severe frosts on the planet Earth, without any warm clothes. Their ability to nurture chicks in the extremely cold conditions of the polar night, in the absence of shelter, food and water - is worthy of the worship of the fathers and mothers of all kinds of living beings. Unfortunately, the life of penguins is overshadowed by the fact that they have very poor gait. The reason for their slow, awkward, waddling gait is still unknown. It is an insuperable obstacle to travel to the depths of the continents. For example, until now no penguin has ever seen the South Pole or the Amundsen Tent - the most famous landmarks of Antarctica, and they live there for millions of years. Penguins appeared and began to walk on two legs much earlier than human beings. Perhaps the waddling gait causes the development of chronic vestibular syndrome, which did not allow them to develop to the level of post-industrial civilization before us. Difficulties with the movement on a hard surface make it difficult for penguins to hunt on land for mobile prey, which reduces the range of their diet and makes them risk their lives every day on the high seas, catching their "bread" in it. Inability to cover significant distances in rough terrain reduces the availability of veterinary care, does not allow participating in our cultural activities away from the coastline, and therefore reduces the quality of life. In case of the global warming, life difficulties of many species of penguins will increase substantially. The melting of ice will lead to the complete disappearance of the places of their potential rest in the sea. Increasing the temperature of the oceans will change not only the climate of coastal regions, but also the food base, which may require a transition to a predominantly on-land lifestyle and feeding. In our opinion, penguins can be helped by dramatically improving their specific gait. The search for ways to remodel it, based on the achievements of biomechanics and plastic surgery, is one of the most urgent tasks of mankind. We, the people, are obliged to come to the rescue with these creative, socially organized birds! It is possible that some of the results of this study will help those of us who have lost the ability to walk gracefully, but have not lost interest for traveling and experiencing of the world in all of its aspects.
S. V. Arkhipov
INFORMATION ABOUT THE STUDY
«Criticising premises and exercising caution in drawing conclusions»
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham al-Baṣrī
This study is based on observations from clinical practice of the author, from the world of nature and everyday life, as well as experimental material obtained with the usage of original models. Important facts were collected in museums and zoos, by studying literary sources, television films and the Internet. The accumulated basic information was analyzed, systematized and classified. A number of analogies between the anatomy and biomechanics of animals and humans have been revealed. The measurements were subjected to statistical processing. Some aspects of the study are formalized and presented in form of equations. Was formulated previously unknown general biological regularity - the law of bioinduction, a new concept of hip joint functioning, developed a mathematical apparatus that allows predicting the course of biological processes. Some interpretations of the material were discussed with representatives of domestic and foreign medical science. Were published a number of works, was successfully defended a thesis for the degree of candidate of medical sciences. The process of study was developed from particulars to general conclusions. The first facts that served as a starting point for the study are gathered from the 32nd chapter of Genesis, which my sister Elena Vasilyevna read to me 25 years ago. It describes very realistically the damage to a "sinew" and violation of the walking function of the Old Testament Patriarch Jacob. Causal relationship between hip joint trauma and gait pathology was very clear and easy to notice. However, its explanation from the position of existing at that time concepts of biomechanics locomotion was impossible. Moreover, it was not clear what exactly kind of "tendon" of human body is referred to in the text of Holy Scripture. The clinical practice of the author has shown that trauma to the hip joint often leads to the development of coxarthrosis and lameness. This bilateral pathology shows itself as, so-called, waddling gait, characterized by significant frontal swaying of the body. Since childhood, everyone knows that such specific walking is a distinctive feature of all penguins without exception. If many minds of medical science thought about improving the quality of human life and locomotion in joint diseases, only a few researchers thought about the gait of penguins. In this regard, we asked ourselves a question - what is the reason for the waddling gait of penguins and how it can be improved? By searching of answer for this question was first clarified why people "waddle" and why lameness in the Old Testament Patriarch Jacob arose. At the final stage of research, a surgical technique has been developed that would allow penguins to obtain graceful gait. It is possible that our notes on the biomechanics of penguins and the remodeling of their waddling gait will help some of us...
One of the striking features of penguins is the waddling gait. It is characterized by a significant swinging of the body and head in the frontal plane. Such type of walking increases the expenditure of muscle energy, can cause vestibular disturbances, increases the risk of falling, makes it difficult to maintain an exact course of movement, does not allow hunting on land for mobile prey. Global warming reduces the area of floating ice and undermines the existing food pyramid of the Southern Ocean. This leads to a reduction in the food base of the Antarctic penguins and the places of their potential rest at sea. In connection with this, it is now vitally important to start looking for new effective ways of feeding on the shore. In our opinion, improving of the on-land locomotion of penguins will help to improve their competitiveness. At the beginning of our study, we asked ourselves: what is the reason for waddling gait of penguins and how to improve it? By searching of an answer, we directly observed various kinds of penguin locomotion at the Moscow Zoo and also videotaped them. We watched video clips of their walking, published on the Internet, and a number of television films with their participation. Scientific and popular literature, covering issues of biomechanics of penguin locomotion, were studied. Along this work, we conducted the studies of the human gait and the peculiarities of vertical poses maintaining. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal system of penguins is refined according to the exhibits of the Moscow museums, and the anatomy of human beings at training in the medical institute and further in the clinic. Particular attention was paid to the concept of the role of the ligamentous apparatus of the hip joint, which are considered in the historical aspect, starting with the oldest written sources. Field investigations were conducted in expeditions to Israel and Jordan - one of the first places of sedentary life of our species. Have been studied pathology features of the human hip joint in clinical practice with the involvement of instrumental methods. Have been produced several series of planar and three-dimensional mechanical models of the hip joint and femoral head, and also some anatomical models. Experiments were performed on them in order to clarify the function of the ligamentous apparatus of the hip joint and its interaction with muscles in humans and penguins. A virtual simulation of the movements of the segments of the lower limb girdle has been made. Obtained data are analyzed, subjected to mathematical and statistical processing. The terminology used to describe the ligament of the head of the femur is complemented, and a detailed classification of its pathology has been submitted to the public. At the beginning of our study, we put forward hypotheses: if something can provide the tension of penguin's femoral head ligament in a single-legged step period, their gait will become graceful, and the body's swaying will decrease. This hypothesis was tested in experiments on hip models of humans and penguins. At the first stage, the analysis and synthesis of the obtained data, we prepared a monograph "Discourse on morphomechanics. The Norm" which was published in 2004. In this work, the question of the influence of the mechanical factor on living of multicellular organisms is considered in detail, was formulated previously unknown regularity – "The law of bioinduction", was developed a mathematical apparatus, that allows to predict the course of biological processes. At the second stage was clarified the role of the ligament of the femoral head in the human musculoskeletal system and in the pathogenesis of degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the hip. Based on the results of these studies, a thesis for the degree of candidate of medical sciences "The role of the ligament of femoral head in the pathogenesis of coxarthrosis" was written and defended in 2013. At the third stage, the biomechanics of human and penguin bipedal locomotion were compared in order to: find out the reason for the waddling gait of penguins and suggest a way to improve it. It has been established that the ligament of the femoral head is an important functional connection of the hip joint. It makes the gait of people, mammals and most birds graceful. When penguins are walking with a vertically arranged body, the ligament of the femoral head is not stretched. This leads to dysfunction of the ligament of the femoral head and of the hip joint as a whole. To compensate this disharmony, the penguins have developed a specific stereotype of walking, which is commonly referred to as a "waddling gait." In our opinion, remodeling of the waddling gait of penguins is possible through surgical intervention on the hip joint. In particular, we proposed an operation: circular periacetabular osteotomy of the pelvis with rotational transposition of the proximal area of attachment of the ligament of the femoral head. The main stages of this surgical intervention were performed in experiments on dry and moist skeleton preparations of the goose, a bird of similar size and structure to the penguin. Modeling of periacetabular osteotomy has proved that the transposition of the ligament of the femoral head is feasible. The change in the orientation of the ligament of the femoral head allows it to be stretched when the penguin is walking with a vertical arrangement of the body. Proposed method of periacetabular osteotomy of the pelvis will improve the gait of penguins and make it graceful, as the gait of humans in the norm. In addition, the tension of the ligament of femoral head during walking will reduce the expenditure of muscle energy per unit of the path, reduce the specific load on the abductor muscle and articular surfaces of the hip joint. After this, penguins can withstand longer periods of hunger and low temperatures, and also more efficiently nurture chicks. The possibility of vestibulopathy emerging will decrease due to a decrease in head vibrations by walking, the accuracy of maintaining the course of movement and attack during hunting on land will increase. The stability of penguins in a single-bearing orthostatic posture and a single-legged step period also will increase, especially on swinging ice floes and in strong winds. Will increase their "flotation ability" when walking on loose snow, hummocks, rocks and forest cover. Our surgical technique will be especially highly-demanded in case of complete disappearance of ice cover on Earth and will help the adaptation of Antarctic penguins to the on-land way of life. These positive functional innovations will improve the quality of penguin life and their competitiveness on land. This will allow them to visit personally all sights of Antarctica and other continents without exception. By global warming, reduction in the food supply and potential resting places in the sea, Antarctic penguins will have the opportunity to learn new effective ways of feeding on land. This will help increase the population of these wonderful birds. The obtained data also make possible the creation of a penguin-like mobile robot, adapted for exploration of the Arctic and Antarctic latitudes of Earth, polar glaciers of Mars, as well as ice moons and dwarf planets of the solar system. We also hope that the results of our modest work will help all those who have lost the ability to walk normally, but have not lost interest for traveling and experiencing of the world in all of its aspects.
The conclusion of the study
The reason for the waddling gait of penguins is the dysfunction of the ligament of the femoral head, and its remodeling is possible by means of circular periacetabular osteotomy of the pelvis with rotational transposition of the proximal attachment area of the ligament of femoral head.
Prospects of the study
The results of our study are regarded as the basis for further research. At the next stage, we plan to find out directly from the Antarctic penguins the necessity of remodeling their gait by proposed surgical intervention now, without waiting for the catastrophic changes caused by the global warming.
The author is expressing thanks to his wife, Liudmila Nikolayevna, to his daughter, Aleksandra Sergeyevna for strong contribution to the researches, and also to his sister, Elena Vasilyevna, who initiated the study.
Sincerely Yours, the author: Arkhipov Sergey Vasilyevich (S.V. Arkhipov-Baltiysky)
Kaliningrad – Smolensk – Vasilkovo – Saint-Petersburg - Hanover – Polessk – Moscow – Korolev
Authors & Affiliations
- Arkhipov Sergey Vasilyevich (pen name is S.V.Arkhipov-Baltiysky)
Монография «Биомеханика пингвинов» написана для личного использования как промежуточный анализ 25 лет исследований и размышлений о ligamentum capitis femoris (LCF). Такое длительное изучение малоизвестной небольшой анатомической структуры, не имеющей явно выраженного значения для организма («атавизм» - 1883,1884SuttonJB; 1922НиколаевЛП) зачастую вызвало недоумение окружающих. Скептическое отношение к роли LCF со стороны большинства коллег подвигло изложить накопленный материал в полушутливой форме. Процесс научных изысканий был представлен как познание причины ковыляющей походки пингвинов и поиска способа ее нормализации. По нашему замыслу, это хоть как-то объясняло для стороннего наблюдателя потраченные силы, время и средства. Улыбка над своим многолетним трудом скрасила отсутствие практических результатов. Вместе с тем, проведенная систематизация литературных, экспериментальных и клинических данных, а также их переосмысление, еще больше укрепили нашу веру в перспективность дальнейших исследований.
- Sutton JB. The Ligamentum Teres. J Anat Physiol. 1883;17(2):190.1-193. 1883SuttonJB
- Sutton JB. The nature of certain ligaments. Journal of anatomy and physiology. 1884;18(3):i2-238. 1884SuttonJB
- Николаев ЛН. Роль круглой связки тазобедренного сустава. Мед журнал. 1922;3(1,2,3):10-2. 1922НиколаевЛН
- Arkhipov SV. Epitome of the manuscript – Biomechanics of penguins: notes to the matter of waddling gait causes and perspectives of its remodeling, with the aim of obtaining of gracefulness, composed by the physician, PhD, Sergey Vasilyevich Arkhipov, during his work as surgeon and orthopedist-traumatologist from 1992 to 2017, inspirited in 1991 by his sister, Elena Vasilyevna, with great love and gratitude to her! [in 5 volumes]. Printed by the Author in the city of Korolev, with the assistance of his wife, Liudmila Nikolayevna, ММXVIII A.D. , bonum factum! [for good and happiness]. 19 p. Epitome. ligteres.com
- Архипов СВ. Биомеханика пингвинов: заметки к вопросу о причинах ковыляющей походки и перспективах ее ремоделирования во имя обретения грациозности, сочиненные врачом, к.м.н. Сергеем Васильевичем Архиповым, в бытность им с 1992-го по 2017-й год хирургом и травматологом-ортопедом, по вдохновению в 1991-ом году его сестрою Еленой Васильевной, со светлой любовью к ней и благодарностью! Манускрипт в 5 томах. Т. 1. Введение; Главы 1-6. Напечатано Автором во граде Королев при попечении его супруги Людмилы Николаевны, ММXVIII A.D. , bonum factum! [на благо и счастье], 513 с. 2018T1АрхиповСВ